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大学英语段落写作思路(II)

[日期:2007-04-29]   [字体: ]

3.尽量混合使用简单句、并列句和复合句,以避免句型单调。

请看下面两段文字:

A.The old man began to tell us the story of his life.He was fifteen.He ran away to the sea.He traveled to South America,China,and Australia.Then he was too old to work.He came to this country to live with relatives.Now he thinks all the time about the“good old days”.He was young then.

B.The old man began to tell us the story of his life.When he was fifteen,he ran away to the sea.He traveled to South America,China and Australia.When he was too old to work,he came to this country to live with relatives.Now he thinks all the time about the“good old days” when he was young.

在上述两段文字中,A段仅用了八个简单句,显得单调,无韵味。而在B段中,简单句和复合句交叉使用,使句子结构更清晰,内容更有趣,读者读起来也不觉得乏味。

4.符合时间顺序(time order),使文章一目了然。

下面这段文章就是按事物发展的时间顺序来写的。它清楚地交待了“我”从一个孩子变成一个画家的发展过程。

Ever since I was a child,I had wanted to study art.Since my adolescence,I used to draw whenever I could.Ten years ago,when I was eighteen years old,I came to the United States.At first I studied only English.Then I went to art school.After graduation I began to win prizes from my paintings.Finally I became very rich.

5.符合空间顺序(space order)。

描写事物时,应该按照事物发生的地点(location)及相互空间关系(spatial relationship)排列,从近及远,或从远到近,或从上到下,或从下到上,或由里及外,或由四周到中央,或从一边到另一边。例如:

In the western suburbs of the city of Wuhan,there stands a small town.That is my hometown.To the south of the small town, there is a little river,on the bank of which many trees are flourishing .At some distance to the north,there rises a hill which is called Flower Hill,on which there are many big trees and beautiful flowers.

这段文章就是采取从南向北、由近及远的写法,介绍了小镇的环境、风景等情况,使读者一目了然。

6.用定义(definition)来解释段落的主题。

当段落的主题要解释“what”时,可用下定义的方法来说明。通常,定义有两种。一种为广义的定义,即词典上的定义,是概括性的,而且比较正式。另一种是狭义的定义,即个人的定义,因为这种定义凭个人的感觉,故有因时,因地,因人而异。一般表示定义的步骤有两个,即先分类———先论其概性,再详述特性———更详细地描述其特征。例如:A wristwatch is used to tell the time.(手表是用来报时的工具。)先分类然后再详述其特征,才能分辨清楚什么是wristwatch:A ristwatch is used to tell the time.It is worn ontwrist...

7.用因果推理(cause and effect)的方法说明段落主题。

当段落的主题要解释“why”时,可用因果推理的方法来说明。因与果之间关系主要有以下四种:

(1)一因一果,即一个原因产生一种结果。例如:Tom coughed badly because he smoked too much.

(2)一因多果,即一项原因产生多项结果。例如:Because I caught a cold yesterday,I sneeze all the time,my head hurts,and my eyes ache.

(3)多因一果,即多项原因产生一项结果。例如:He has been prom- oted because he is able and industrious.

(4)多因多果,即多项原因产生多项结果。例如:Because there was a flat tire and the emergency brake failed to hold,the robber's car fell down off the cliff and hit a big rock.

8.用比较和对比(comparison and contrast)说明段落主题。

当段落的主题是要指出两件事物的相同点(similarities)和不同点(differences)时,可用比较和对比的方法来说明,但比较或对比的两件事必须属于同一类别。用比较和对比说明,有两种形式:

(1)两项事物分别描述,即先列出所有比较的细节,然后列出对比的细节。例如:

A.Colour TV                B.Black and White TV

a.appearance               a.appearance

b.cost                     b.cost

c.picture                  c.picture

(2)两项事物同时逐点描述,即比较或对比细节交叉进行。例如:

A.appearance       B.cost          C.picture

a.color TV        a. ________     a._________

b.black and       b. ________     b._________

   white TV

9.用举例或例证(example and illustration)说明段落主题。

一段文字仅有理论性的论点是不够的,还需要实例来支持或证明论点,以实例来说明主题。例如:

There are several advantages of learning to type.For example,typing is faster and less tiring than writing.Typed paper is neater,and it helps you get better grades.Besides,learning to type can help you find a summer or part-time job easily.

10.用综合手段说明主题,即同时使用两种以上的写作法,这在写作中是十分常见的。例如:

Women are really poor drivers.Once,as I was driving up to an intersection,the car in front of me stopped short.I slammed on my brakes and narrowly avoided a collision.Since the light was GREen,I honked my horn in an attempt to get the lady to move.As shestarted to roll slowly forward,the light changed to yellow.She im mediately put on her brakes and stopped in the middle of the intersection.I stopped a short distance behind her to enable her to back up.The next thing I knew,the lady's car was moving backwards toward mine at about 60 miles per hour.Before I evenhad time to honk my horn again,she slammed into my car,giving me a painful whiplash injury.

这段文字使用了时间顺序、空间顺序和举例说明三种方法。

三、如何写好段落的结尾句

结尾句是总结段落主题的句子,其位置应在一段文章的结尾。写好结尾句应把握以下两点:

1.把握主题句中的关键词。例如:

Our old neighbourhood has been GREatly changed.When I last visited there,about half the homes had been torn down to make way for a superhighway.The remaining buildings were plastered with billboards and surrounded by traffic signs and litter.Now the whole neigh-bourhood has become dirty,noisy,and full of cars.

主题句中的关键词为:neighbourhood, changed。

2.回答主题句中所暗示的问题。如上文的结尾句回答了主题句所暗示的问题:How is the neighbourhood different?

每一段除了要注意上述技巧外,还要注意段落里句子的时态、语态、人称、数等的正确运用。段首句的主语通常是文章中的主要角色,后面句子的主语应该与这个主语保持一致,时态也应前后呼应、一致。(End)

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