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航天服制作过程Spacesuit production process

[日期:2008-09-25]   [字体: ]
   几乎所有在科幻电影中出现过的宇航服,都和我们在现实航天试验中看到的相去甚远,前者大多是紧身设计,好像蜘蛛侠身上那层灵活柔韧的外皮,只不过作为宇航服,它们不太会以红色出现;但是现实中的宇航服似乎总也无法摆脱僵硬笨重的外型,这种宇航服看上去仿佛一个吹胀的气球,被包裹在其中的宇航员无论做什么动作,都会显得艰难、笨拙。

 

达瓦的研究生正在用记忆合金制作“生物服”的网状“骨骼”


    虽然科幻电影里的宇航服不足以形成对比的标准—在真正的航天试验里,宇航服的安全性能和实用性功能才是最重要的—但这至少表现出一种期望,更灵活、更轻盈、更人性化,像一件真正的衣服,这才是我们对未来宇航服的设想。


    好在航天航空方面的科学家们从来没有忽视过这样的期望。更灵活,更人性化,这也是宇航服研究专家们一直以来的研究方向。他们希望能够研制出一种紧贴皮肤的宇航服来,这种宇航服不会像传统宇航服一样妨碍人的行动,重量应该控制在45 公斤左右,而传统宇航服却往往重达150 公斤。


    美国麻省理工大学太空航空研究院的教授达瓦.纽曼(Dava Newman)是这种轻便式宇航服研究的主创人员之一,她和研究同伴们把这种宇航服叫做“生物服”(Biosuit)。去年年底,他们推出“生物服”的一个样板,这个样板已经解决了很多生命维持方面的问题,只是作为最初版本,还不适于用作太空行走。但是达瓦教授和她的同事希望能尽快研制出改良的版本,以便能在2012 年的“美国再次登月”计划中担当重任。

 


紧贴皮肤的宇航服

 

“生物服”保留了肌肉运动的“运动线”,以保证活动的灵便


    麻省理工大学太空航空研究院的科学家常常会把这种能够紧贴在皮肤上的宇航服称作是“杂交产物”,从传统宇航服的150 公斤降到现在的45 公斤。“生物服”实际上采用了一种完全不同的工作原理,但是它的生命维持系统却几乎原封不动地承袭传统宇航服的设计,它将被背在宇航员的身后,在太空活动的过程中为宇航员提供氧气和食物。


    和传统宇航服一样,“生物服”必须为宇航员创造一个和地球环境类似的微环境,以确保人类的存活;然而传统宇航服采用的是一种“宇航服内加压”的方式为宇航员创造大气压强,这也是传统宇航服看起来十分臃肿的原因。


    “生物服”则采用了一种“机械反压”的方式来实现加压。和传统宇航服一样,“生物服”也是采取多层结构的设计,除了内衣层、排汗和散热层之外,达瓦教授还是用一种可以被准确塑形的记忆合金,为“生物服”做了一付轻便的、富有弹性的“骨骼”。在这付“骨骼”外面,达瓦教授蒙上了一层高级混合纤维做成的隔热防辐射面料,然后再在这层面料上涂上一层涂层,为的是让面料完全失去延展性。在骨骼和面料之间,达瓦教授用一种高分子聚合物的凝胶填充进去,这些凝胶在受热的条件下会非常容易膨胀。


    穿着这样的“生物服”,宇航员在太空中执行太空行走的任务时,宇航服一旦感受到高温,无论来自太空辐射还是来自于宇航员自己的呼吸过程,这种温度都足以让凝胶膨胀起来。但是凝胶的膨胀却无法向外扩散,因为表层面料是紧绷的,于是只能向内挤压,这种挤压到最后会形成一种内压力,和宇航服内气体加压的效果相同,但“生物服”完全不会变臃肿,同时也省去了气体加压设备的重量。

 


“为人设计的宇航服”

 

达瓦穿着贴身的“生物服”样衣,和海报中的传统宇航服形成对比


    那这种紧贴在皮肤上的“生物服”和传统宇航服究竟有什么本质上的差别么?达瓦教授介绍说:“传统的宇航服都是为了完成某种任务而打造的,但‘生物服’却是一件为人设计的宇航服。”


    在太空中,由于失重和宇航服体积庞大,宇航员的行动能力往往会减弱40%,当他们在太空中完成某项任务的时候,即使是一个简单的动作,他们也很难做到得心应手。但是“生物服”却能在保障安全的同时,能让宇航员保持灵活性和一定的力量感。


    达瓦教授和她的研究团队曾用3D图像研究人在行走或发力时的肌肉运动,最后他们发现肌肉在运动时会产生一些具有支撑作用的力的线条,于是达瓦教授让她的“生物服”按照这些线条的纹路缝制起来,以保证这些线条在运动时,始终保持柔韧度和弹性,而宇航服的其他部分则是紧绷的,起到保护和隔离的作用。


    “传统的宇航服只是把关节的部位设计成轴承,或者把需要活动的地方设计成弯头,但是这样宇航员的活动范围仍是有限的,我们希望‘生物服’是一种类似于第二层皮肤那样的宇航服,它能让宇航员按照自己的心意活动。”达瓦教授说,“那么它将能使宇航员在月亮或火星上的行动更加自由,如履平地。”

 

In almost all science fiction movies, has appeared in the spacesuits, and we are in the real space experiments to see a far cry from the former are tight design, like Spider-Man found that a flexible layer of the skin more pliable, but as a spacesuit, They do not appear in red; but in reality it seems that the spacesuits of the total can not shake off the heavy rigid form, which looks like a spacesuit Inflation of the balloon, which was wrapped in the astronauts to do regardless of what action, Would seem difficult, clumsy.



 

Dawa's Graduate memory alloy is used to produce the "biological services" mesh "skeleton"


     Although science fiction movies, not enough to contrast the spacesuits standards - in the true test of space, the spacesuits safety and practicality is the most important function - but at least the performance expectations of a more flexible, more light And more humane, like a real clothes, and this is our vision for the future spacesuits.


     Fortunately, the area of aviation and space scientists never to ignore such expectations. More flexible, more humane, this is also an expert on spacesuits have been since the research. They would like to see developed a close to the skin of the spacesuit, spacesuits that will not impede the traditional spacesuits like people, should be to control the weight of 45 kg, while the traditional spacesuits are often weighed 150 kilograms.


     The Massachusetts Institute of Air Space University professor of Dawa. Newman (Dava Newman) is such a portable spacesuits study one of the cast members, and her companion were the spacesuits that is called "biological services" ( Biosuit). Late last year, they launched the "biological services" as a model, this model has solved many aspects of life, just as the original version, also suitable for use as space walk. However, Dawa, a professor and her colleagues hope that we can develop an improved version in 2012 in order to be able to "American landing on the moon again," plans to take a leading role.

 


Close to the skin of spacesuits



 

"Biological services" to retain the muscle movement "campaign line" to ensure that the activities of the agile


     Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Institute of Air Space scientists often this will be close to the skin of the spacesuit is called the "hybrid product", from the traditional spacesuit is now down to 150 kg of 45 kg. "Biological services" in fact adopted a completely different operating principle, but its life-support system was almost unchanged traditions of the spacesuit design, it will be back in behind the astronauts in space activities For the astronauts to provide food and oxygen.


     Spacesuits and traditions, "biological services" for the astronauts must create an environment similar to the Earth and the micro-environment in order to ensure the survival of mankind; however, the use of traditional spacesuit is a kind of "inside the pressurized spacesuits" for aerospace Members of the creation of atmospheric pressure, which is the traditional look very cumbersome spacesuits.


     "Biological services" using a "mechanical counter-pressure" approach to pressure to achieve. Spacesuits and traditions, "biological services" is to take the design of multi-storey structure, in addition to underwear layer, heat and perspiration levels, Dawa, a professor or a can be accurately shaping the memory alloys, as a "biological Service "to pay a lightweight, flexible," bones. " In this pay, "skeleton" outside, Dawa, a professor cast a mixed layer of high-fiber insulation made of fabric radiation, and then in this layer fabric coated with a layer of the coating, in order to allow the fabric to extend a total loss Sex. And between the bones in the fabric, a Dawa, a professor of polymer gel filling into the gel in the heat of these conditions will be very easy expansion.


     Wearing such a "biological services", the astronauts in space to implement the task of the spacewalk, spacesuits once felt the heat, whether radiation from space or from its own astronauts to breathe, this temperature is sufficient for the condensate Expansion of the rubber up. However, the expansion of the gel can not out-proliferation, because the surface of the fabric is strained, so can only squeeze inside, which will be squeezed into the final with a pressure of the gas pressure inside the spacesuit and the effect of the same However, the "biological services" will not become bloated and at the same time eliminate the need for gas compression equipment weight.

 


"Well-designed spacesuits"



 

Dawa's body wearing a "biological services"-like clothing, posters and traditional spacesuits contrast


     This was close to the skin of the "biological services" and the traditional spacesuits what is essentially the difference between what? Professor Dawa, said: "Traditional spacesuits are in order to complete certain tasks to create, but the 'biological services' is a well-designed spacesuits."


     In space, weightlessness and because of the huge volume of spacesuits, the astronauts will tend to weaken the operational capacity of 40% in space when they completed a task, even for a simple action that they can hardly be easier. But the "biological services" can guarantee security in the same time, the astronauts can maintain a certain deGREe of flexibility and a sense of strength.


     Dawa, a professor and her research team have used 3D images in research or power walk at the time of muscle movement, they finally found in the muscles during exercise will have some role in supporting the power lines, the Dawa, a professor of her " Biological services "in accordance with these lines of sewing patterns, to ensure that the lines of those in the movement, always Rouren Duo and flexibility, and other parts of the spacesuit is tight, play a role in the protection and isolation.


     "Traditional spacesuits only designed to be part of the joint bearings, or the need for local activities designed to bend, but the astronauts such activities is still limited, we hope that the 'biological services' is a kind of similar to the second Layer of the skin as spacesuits, the astronauts make it according to its own activities in mind. "Dawa said," it will enable astronauts to the moon or Mars more freedom of action, Rulvpingde. "


 

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