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雅思考试作文写作注意事项

[日期:2007-11-02]   [字体: ]

文章由句子组成,句子由词语组成。在着手写文章之前,应该提醒自己注意下面几点  
  1)句子与词语的正确用法。这是最基本的一点。这里包括单字的正确拼写、词语在特定句子中的正确应用、正确的句子模式。注意:千万不要在文章中出现中国式的英语。这就要求在构思的时候不要用中文进行思考,写的时候要仔细斟酌文章的语句。 
  2)句子的多样化。这点的实现必须在句子与词语的正确上来实现。句子的多样化是体现一个人英语语言水平的关键也是使文章获得高分的重点。如非谓语从句、定语从句、宾语从句等,以及简单句、复杂句的综合使用。 
  3)标点的正确使用 
  文章的整体风格与气氛。 
  作为考官或者是阅读你文章的人,在第一次接触到你文章时就可以感受到文章的特点与风格,或者活泼或者呆板,而依据模板写的文章很难做到活泼或者是吸引读者。 
  保持书写的工整性与字迹 
   常见错误提醒一.不一致(disaGREements) 
  所谓不一致不光指主谓不一致,它还包括了数的不一致时态不一致及代词不一致等. 
  例1. when one have money ,he can do what he want to . 
  (人一旦有了钱,他就能想干什么就干什么.) 
  剖析:one是单数第三人称,因而本句的have应改为has ;同理,want应改为wants.本句是典型的主谓不一致. 
  改为:once one has money ,he can do what he wants (to do)  
  二.修饰语错位(misplaced modifiers) 
  英语与汉语不同,同一个修饰语置于句子不同的位置,句子的含义可能引起变化.对于这一点中国学生往往没有引起足够的重视,因而造成了不必要的误解.例1. i believe i can do it well and i will better know the world outside the campus. 
  剖析:better位置不当,应置于句末. 
  三.句子不完整(sentence fragments) 
  在口语中,交际双方可借助手势语气上下文等,不完整的句子完全可以被理解.可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,笔者又想加些补充说明时发生. 
  例1. there are many ways to know the society. for example by tv ,radio ,newspaper and so on . 
  剖析:本句后半部分"for example by tv ,radio ,newspaper and so on .”不是一个完整的句子,仅为一些不连贯的词语,不能独立成句.改为:there are many ways to know society ,for example ,by tv ,radio ,and newspaper. 
  四.悬垂修饰语(dangling modifiers) 
  所谓悬垂修饰语是指句首的短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清.例如:at the age of ten, my grandfather died.这句中"at the age of ten"只点出十岁时,但没有说明”谁”十岁时.按一般推理不可能是my grandfather,如果我们把这个悬垂修饰语改明确一点,全句就不那么费解了.改为: 
  when i was ten, my grandfather died. 
  例1. to do well in college, good grades are essential.剖析:句中不定式短语“to do well in college”的逻辑主语不清楚. 
  改为: 
  to do well in college, a student needs good grades.五.词性误用(misuse of parts of speech) 
  “词性误用”常表现为:介词当动词用;形容词当副词用;名词当动词用等.例1. none can negative the importance of money. 
  剖析:negative系形容词,误作动词。 
  改为: 
  none can deny the importance of money. 
  六.指代不清(ambiguous reference of pronouns) 
  指代不清主要讲的是代词与被指代的人或物关系不清,或者先后所用的代词不一致。试看下面这一句: 
  mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid. 
  (玛丽和我姐姐很要好,因为她要她做她的伴娘。) 
  读完上面这一句话,读者无法明确地判断两位姑娘中谁将结婚,谁将当伴娘。如果我们把易于引起误解的代词的所指对象加以明确,意思就一目了然了。这个句子可改为: 
  mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid. 
  例1. and we can also know the society by serving it yourself.剖析:句中人称代词we和反身代词yourself指代不一致。改为: 
  we can also know society by serving it ourselves. 
  七.不间断句子(run-on sentences) 
  什么叫run-on sentence?请看下面的例句。 
  例1. there are many ways we get to know the outside world.剖析:这个句子包含了两层完整的意思:“there are many ways.”以及“we get to know the outside world.”。简单地把它们连在一起就不妥当了。 
  改为: 
  there are many ways for us to learn about the outside world.或:there are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world 
  八.措词毛病(troubles in diction) 
  diction是指在特定的句子中如何适当地选用词语的问题,囿于教学时间紧迫,教师平时在这方面花的时间往往极其有限,影响了学生在写作中没有养成良好的推敲,斟酌的习惯。他们往往随心所欲,拿来就用。所以作文中用词不当的错误比比皆是。 
  例1. the increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution. 
  (农业方面化学物质使用的不断增加也造成了污染。) 
  剖析:显然,考生把obstacles“障碍”,“障碍物”误作substance“物质”了。另外“the increasing use (不断增加的使用)”应改为“abusive use (滥用)”。 
  改为: 
  the abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution. 
  九.累赘(redundancy) 
  言以简洁为贵。写句子没有一个多余的词;写段落没有一个无必要的句子。能用单词的不用词组;能用词组的不用从句或句子。如: 
  in spite of the fact that he is lazy, i like him.本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同谓语从句,我们按照上述“能用词组的不用从句”可以改为:in spite of his laziness, i like him.例1. for the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need. 
  剖析:整个句子可以大大简化。 
  改为: 
  diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need. 
  十.不连贯(incoherence) 
  不连贯是指一个句子前言不对后语,或是结构上不畅通。这也是考生常犯的毛病。 
  例1. the fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth.  
  剖析:the fresh water与逗号后的it不连贯。it与things在数方面不一致。 
  常见联词 
  表层进 
  first, firstly to begin with/second, secondly to start with/third, thirdly what’s more/also and then/and equally important/besides in addition/further in the first place/still furthermore 
  last but not the least/next besides/too moreover/finally  
  表举例 
  for example for instance/to illustrate as an illustration/after all/表解释 
  /as a matter of fact/frankly speaking/

in this case namely/in other words  
  表总结 
  in summary in a word/in brief in conclusion/to conclude in fact/indeed in short/in other words /of course/it is true specially/namely in all/that is to summarize/thus as has been said/altogether in other words/finally in simpler terms/in particular that is/on the whole to put it differently/therefore表强调 
  of course indeed/above all most important/emphasis certainly in fact  
  表让步 
  still nevertheless/in spite of all the same/even so after all/concession granted naturally/of course  
  表比较 
  in comparison likewise/similarly equally/however likewise/in the same way/ 
  表转折 
  by contrast although/e same time but/in contrast nevertheless/notwithstanding on the contraryon the other hand otherwise/regardless still/though yet/despite the fact that even so/even though for all that/however in spite of/instead  
  表时间 
  after a while afterward/again also/and then as long as/at last at length/at that time before/besides earlier/eventually finally/formerly further/furthermore in addition/in the first place in the past/last lately/meanwhile moreover/next now/presently second/shortly simultaneously/since so far/soon still/subsequently then/thereafter too/until until now/when.

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